Muscle training glossary


Muscle training glossary



Strength training is training to build muscle.

There are many different muscles in the body, and there are many ways to train them.


Also, even if you say that you are building muscle,

Do you want to build toned muscles like women do with muscle training and fitness?

Or depending on whether you want to build big, bulging muscles.

Training methods will vary


Muscle training is hard! I also hear the opinion that

People who play sports should do muscle training and strengthen their physical strength.


Also, men with big muscles are overwhelmingly popular with women.

Women with toned bodies are also overwhelmingly popular with men.


Muscle training has a positive effect on your mental health!

Please read the basic muscle training glossary posted here until the end.

Deepen your understanding of muscle training


arm curl

A workout to strengthen the arm muscles, usually done using a barbell or dumbbells.

This is a very orthodox muscle training method.

Women who want to get in shape sometimes use a plastic bottle filled with water instead of dumbbells.



This is a training exercise to strengthen the abdominal muscles, mainly aiming at tightening the abdomen.

This includes crunches and leg raises.


athletic training

Training performed to improve competitive performance, strengthening speed, agility, balance, etc.


upright row

This is a shoulder and triceps exercise, usually performed using a barbell or dumbbells.


ultimate stand up

This is a training exercise that uses your body weight to strengthen the muscles of your entire body. It is usually a combination of push-ups and burpees.


outer muscle

Refers to the superficial muscles of the trunk and plays an important role in athletic performance. This includes the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles.



Isolate refers to separated whey, similar to whey concentrate and whey isolate that exist in whey protein.


achilles tendon

This is a tendon that connects the calf muscle to the heel, and is particularly stressed during activities such as jumping and vaulting.

Be sure to stretch thoroughly before exercising or lifting weights to avoid injury.



This refers to the muscles that primarily contract when performing a specific exercise, and is consciously utilized during training.



It is an ingredient that has the ability to break down body fat and is used as an ingredient in fat-burning supplements.


arnold press

A type of exercise that strengthens the shoulder muscles, usually stimulating the front, middle, and rear deltoid muscles.

This workout got its name from Arnold Schwarzenegger’s favorite use of it.


ab roller

Training equipment also known as an ab roller.

Get on your knees, grip with both hands, and roll forward to engage your abdominal muscles.

This workout not only strengthens your abdominal muscles, but also your back and butt muscles.


upper chest

Refers to the muscles located in the upper part of the chest, mainly the upper part of the pectoralis major muscle located below the biceps brachii.

Although it is possible to train the entire chest with exercises such as the bench press, exercises such as the incline bench press are effective for specifically training the upper chest.


Abdominal machine

This is a device for training the abdominal muscles, and is mainly used for training the rectus abdominis muscles.


arm blaster

A device used when performing arm curls that increases the load on the biceps by stabilizing the arm.


armless palmour

This is an exercise that strengthens your back muscles by lifting the barbell while keeping your core stable.


ultimate frisbee

It is a sport that requires the use of the whole body, and involves passing the disc to the opponent while running, and competing for points by carrying the disc to the opponent’s territory.


alpine skiing

A type of skiing that involves sliding down a slope at high speed.

You need strength in your lower body, such as your legs and hips.



Exercises to improve trunk stability as part of core training.

Typical movements include side planks and Pallof presses.


anti rolling

A training method to prevent your body from tilting to the left or right while raising your upper body.

A typical example is the anti-rolling crunch.


amino acid

Amino acids refer to the building blocks of proteins.

There are a total of 20 types of amino acids necessary for building the human body, and of these, 9 amino acids that cannot be produced by the body are called “essential amino acids (EAA).”

Furthermore, among the “essential amino acids”, three amino acids that serve as an energy source for muscles and suppress protein breakdown are called “BCAA”. The remaining 11 amino acids are known as “non-essential amino acids.”

In order to do muscle training and train your body efficiently, let’s think about the nutrients you need to inoculate. You can also use supplements


Amino acid score

Amino acid score is an index that evaluates the content of the nine essential amino acids necessary for humans.


Anabolic, anabolic

Anabolic refers to the state of adequate nutrition and adequate protein supply.

It is necessary to consume protein at appropriate intervals; if this is exceeded, muscle breakdown (catabolic) begins.



It’s a type of exercise that involves spreading your arms and legs out, and can train your sense of balance and muscle strength.


anti form

This refers to training with poor posture and form, and accurate form is important for training effectiveness.



A type of male hormone that is involved in muscle development and bone density maintenance.



This is a nickname used to describe the state of development of the biceps, and refers to the shape of the muscle that resembles an anchovy.



RM refers to the maximum weight you can lift; for example, 3RM indicates the weight you can barely lift for 3 repetitions. There is a usage such as “100 kg is my 3RM”.


andy bolton

British bodybuilder and former competitive weightlifter. He is known as the strongest man in the world and is especially famous for his large muscle mass.


Ultimate Step

The Ultimate Step is a form of aerobics that involves climbing up and down a step platform.

This training is expected to burn calories, focusing on the lower body.



This refers to changing the inclination angle of a training machine, etc. in order to change the range of motion or modulate muscle load.

For example, in the bench press, you can change the resistance by adjusting the angle of the bench.

Choose an angle that suits your level and purpose.



Isokinetic is a form of strength training that refers to self-regulating resistance training.

By adjusting the load yourself, a constant load is applied.


outer side raise

This exercise involves holding dumbbells in your hands and stretching your arms out to the sides.

It is mainly suitable for training the outer muscles of the shoulders.

Also called regular side raise.



Undergrip is a term used to describe how to grip the shaft, and refers to holding it in the opposite hand.

For example, it can be used to perform pull-ups with an undergrip. The antonym is “overgrip.”


assault bike

Assault bikes are a type of exercise bike, and are characterized by linked pedals and handlebars.

It can effectively train both the upper and lower body and is suitable for high-intensity training.


adjustable bench

This is a type of bench that allows you to adjust the height of the bench used for bench press etc.

By adjusting the height, it can be adapted to various events.


algorithm training

Algorithmic training is a method that calculates various body parameters on a computer and suggests the optimal training method.

Training can be done taking into account individual physical characteristics.


assist machine

An assist machine is a type of training machine that can reduce the force required for exercise by assisting the strength of some muscles.

It is mainly used for training for beginners.


angle push up

Push-ups performed with your arms outstretched effectively train your chest, deltoids, and triceps.


alpha repoic acid

It is a type of nutrient involved in energy metabolism, and taking it before training has the effect of promoting energy metabolism.


Abaddon’s Plant

By lying on your back and lifting your body with your arms and legs pointing toward the ceiling, you can train all the muscles in your body, especially your abdominal muscles.


upright rope

This is a rope pulling exercise that effectively trains your biceps and forearm muscles.


isometric training

A training method that stimulates the muscles and uses isometric contractions.


american deadlift

A form of deadlift, this exercise consists of lifting a barbell from the floor to knee height in one set, which strengthens your back, hips, and thighs.


raccoon pull

This training equipment supports your upper body, allowing you to train your back, arms, and shoulders.

It is used for events such as chin-ups and dips.



A type of magnet used in training machines, with high durability and high sound quality.


isolation event

This refers to single-joint exercise and is a training method that targets a specific main muscle.

Examples include dumbbell flyes and dumbbell curls, as opposed to compound exercises.

Isolation events have the advantage of focusing on training specific muscles.


intensive training

It is a training method that focuses on one muscle group. For example, in a single-focus training of the chest muscles, you may incorporate flat bench press, incline bench press, decline bench press, etc.



A break between sets of muscle training, where you take a 1-5 minute rest after completing a set.

Appropriate interval times will vary depending on the area of training and your goals, so we recommend consulting with your trainer.



It is a hormone that sends blood sugar to muscles and fat, and has the effect of lowering elevated blood sugar levels.

Additionally, insulin resistance may be improved by the action of insulin.


infinity loop

A form of weight training that involves crossing your arms and legs and using rings or bands.

You can do it by mobilizing your whole body.



A phenomenon in which the muscle on the opposite side contracts before the muscle contracts, making it impossible to exert its original strength.


import training

It is a training method that is not well known in Japan and is mainly practiced in Europe and America.

This includes core training and training using machines.


invert training

A training method that uses a special belt.

You can train more efficiently while minimizing muscle fatigue.


involve training

A method of gradually reducing the number of training sessions.

You can train more efficiently while minimizing muscle fatigue.


in my line

Train while keeping your body in shape.

By training with your knees and elbows bent, you can avoid putting stress on your body.


Bulk training

Training that trains multiple muscles at the same time.

Examples of this include squats and deadlifts.


isokinetic training

A training method that uses uniform motion.

A typical example is strength training using machines.


inner muscle

Inner muscles generally refer to muscles located deep within the body.

The muscles of the trunk are also called “inner muscles,” which is a general term for muscles located deep within the body, such as the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor muscles around the shoulder joint. These include the rotator cuff, the transversus abdominis muscle in the abdomen, the iliopsoas muscle around the hip joint, and the gluteus minimus.


intraset stretch

A training method that delays muscle fatigue by stretching the muscles during training sets.


infra leg curl

A training exercise performed while lying on your back to strengthen your hamstrings (the muscles behind your thighs).

Place your feet on a supporting platform or device and use your ankles to lift the platform.


Inverted row

Training to strengthen your back muscles using your body weight.

Train by placing your hands in a high position, raising your chest and pulling your back.



The action of turning the heel of the foot inward during a squat or deadlift.

It has the effect of particularly training the inner thighs.



Training to strengthen the muscles around the shoulder blades using a rowing machine.

By pulling your shoulder blades together, you can focus on strengthening your upper back.


Inward lotion

A workout that trains your triceps and back muscles by rotating your arms inward.

This is done using weights such as dumbbells or cables.


Inward pulldown

Training that uses equipment to pull the back muscles inward.

It is particularly effective in training the muscles of the back.


incline dumbbell press

Training performed with the bench tilted at about 45 degrees.

Examples of this include the incline bench press and the incline dumbbell curl.


behind the scenes

A muscle located on the back of the leg.


back triceps

A muscle that extends behind the triceps.


back quadriceps

Part of the quadriceps muscle located on the back of the thigh.


dynamic stretching before exercise

Dynamic stretching before training.


stretching after exercise

Static stretching after training.



The total amount of exercise performed during training.


exercise intensity

The difficulty and intensity of the exercise during training.


exercise load

The strain and pressure placed on exercise during training.


Physical energy

Energy used in training.


metabolism during exercise

Energy metabolism that occurs during training.



Weights such as dumbbells and barbells.


warm up

Warm up your body before starting training.


wall sit

A variation of the squat where you sit with your back against a wall and your legs bent at 90 degrees.



Aerobic exercise performed by walking.


walking lunge

A form of aerobic exercise that combines walking and lunges.


water bottle

A container for hydrating during exercise, commonly known as a water bottle.


waist trainer

Training equipment to reduce fat around the waist. It is generally used by being worn on the body.


water bag

A bag-shaped item filled with water, used for training. Used for grip strength training, shadow boxing, etc.


waist lift

Training to strengthen the muscles of the waist and back. Also known as high lift. It is performed using a barbell.


wavelet training

A training method that combines high-intensity and low-intensity exercise. It is applied to aerobic exercise and strength training.


waist belt

A belt to support your waist. Used during weightlifting and powerlifting.


waist twist

Exercises that rotate your hips to strengthen the muscles around your waist.


waist shaper

Training goods to tighten your waist. It is used by being attached to the waist.


weight gainer

Protein for weight gain. It is high in calories and fat, and is used for bulking up during the bulking phase, but it needs to be combined with a balanced diet.


weight training

Training that primarily uses weights. In America, it is also called a workout.


weight lifting

It is part of the Olympic competition and includes three events: deadlift, squat, and bench press.


warm up

Warming up your body before training. The purpose is to increase body temperature, especially muscle temperature, through light exercise and stretching, making muscle contraction and nervous system circuits more effective.


water jogging

A jogging exercise performed in a pool without touching the ground. It contributes to improving the muscle strength of the whole body with a low load.


warm down

Exercises performed at the end of training. Also called a cool-down, the purpose is to return the muscles and other organs that have been used to a resting state.


exercise intensity index

Also called MetS, it is an index that shows how many times the metabolic rate increases during exercise, with the metabolic rate at rest being 1. 1 MET is equivalent to approximately 1.05kcal/kg/h.


heart rate during exercise

Heart rate measured during exercise. Used when setting appropriate exercise intensity.


eccentric contraction

This refers to an action that exerts strength while stretching the muscles. For example, in a dumbbell curl, the action of lowering a dumbbell corresponds to this action, and is also called a “negative” action.

The muscle pain caused by eccentric contractions is well known.



This is an exercise that stretches the muscles, and is mainly performed on the legs and back.



It is a general term for exercise and training, and includes various forms such as strength training and aerobic exercise.



It is a type of hormone that is secreted by exercise and brings about a feeling of pleasure.



It is a form of aerobic exercise that involves rhythmic movements.

often used for dieting



This exercise involves lifting your legs while holding weights, which is effective for your abdominal muscles and lower abdomen.



This is a training method that uses your muscles explosively to improve power.



This refers to a training method that maximizes the power of your muscles.


electronic muscle stimulation

A training method that uses electrical stimulation to strengthen muscles, and is primarily used as an aid for rehabilitation and training.



This is a training method that involves repeating movements to achieve effective muscle training.



Refers to the power and physical strength required for training, which is recovered through nutrition and rest.



Refers to the effects and efficacy brought about by training.



A training method that improves flexibility by stretching muscles.



A training method that stimulates the muscles by gradually increasing the load.



A training method with no time or number limits.



Challenge yourself to your limits in training.



A term used to refer to beginners and basic training methods.


end balance

A training method to balance muscles.

This is something that takes into consideration overall balance rather than training specific areas.


end of session

Words that indicate the end of training. May include cool down and stretching.


Overload principle

Also known as the law of gradual load increase, it is a theory that constantly increases the load and stimulation on muscles with each training session, preventing monotony of training while promoting super recovery and muscle development.



A state of chronic fatigue that occurs when muscles are continuously stressed beyond their proper limits or without proper rest.

The required rest time during muscle training is specified.

Recognize that rest is part of training.


overhand grip

This is the opposite of an undergrip, and refers to gripping the shaft with your bare hands.



Refers to a grip where one hand is under-grip and the other hand is over-grip.


all out

In muscle training, this refers to the state in which muscle strength is completely used up, and is often referred to as “pushing” among trainees.

If you are aiming for muscle hypertrophy, this all-out condition is considered to be a necessary condition.


oil mania

A derogatory term used to refer to steroid users who prefer to inject oil to increase muscle mass through injections.


overhead press

A training exercise for strengthening the shoulders, which involves pushing dumbbells or barbells over your head.



This refers to the training period outside of the competition period.


old school

This refers to the use of traditional training methods and equipment.


olympic lift

Refers to the four Olympic training events: deadlift, squat, clean & jerk, and snatch.



This refers to putting weight on only one arm or leg.


online coaching

Refers to receiving training guidance over the Internet.


auto regulation

Refers to the self-adjustment ability to adjust the load and repetitions while monitoring one’s own physical condition during training.


overhead squat

A training exercise in which you perform squats while holding a barbell above your head.


auto repeat

This refers to performing the same movement over and over again without reducing the load in one set.


on concentration

This refers to intensively training specific muscles.


all in one machine

One piece of equipment that can be used for multiple training purposes. However, the quality of the machine tends to decrease.


always on

This refers to always demonstrating the best performance in training.


open chain

A training event in which one joint moves freely during the movement.


on the course

Follow a specific training program.



Refers to the optimal training method or program.


overhead lockout

The part of the deadlift involves lifting the barbell and then extending your arms to push the barbell upwards.


only free

Training with free weights without the use of fixed equipment such as machines.


off hand

Training should be done with the hand that is weaker than the other hand.


off training

Period of time off from training.



A state of maximum muscle fatigue.


overhand deadlift

A training event in which you lift a barbell with an overhand grip.



The process of providing guidance and information to new participants in a training program.



Refers to general training methods and equipment.



Overstretching a muscle and causing injury.


on the fly

Doing unexpected training that was not planned.


olympic bar

A long bar used for Olympic lifts.



Refers to training methods and diets that are close to natural.


offset barbell

Training with a barbell that is heavy on one end.


olympic bench press

A training method to strengthen the chest as part of the Olympic competition.


Only body weight (bodyweight training)

Training using only your own body weight without the use of equipment.


open pose

Keep your body open by stretching.


only one

Training limited to specific training methods and equipment.


all plate

A device used by stacking round weights in the center of a barbell.


auto focus

Find your best form while training.


open guard

In martial arts such as judo and Brazilian jiu-jitsu, fighting with your body open while receiving attacks from your opponent.


olympic squat

Training to strengthen the legs is part of the Olympic competition.


on balance

Train while maintaining balance.


calf raise

This exercise mainly targets the gastrocnemius muscle, which is a muscle on the back of the leg.


calf press

A term used to perform calf raises using equipment.



Exercises to strengthen your biceps.


curl variations

Using tools like barbells, dumbbells, cables, and equipment, you can stimulate the same muscles by changing the weight and angle.


guide rail

A device for restricting one’s movement on equipment.


KAATSU training

A type of training in which a pressure belt is wrapped around the base of the limbs and pressure is applied to certain muscles.

Because blood circulation is suppressed, metabolic stress is extremely high, and care must be taken as the pressure applied may lead to injury.


casein protein

A type of animal protein, one of the most popular proteins along with whey protein.

Whey is obtained by removing fat and solid proteins from milk, and casein is the solid protein that is removed from milk.

Because it takes time to absorb, it is not suitable for immediate replenishment after training, and is generally taken before bed.


Catabolic, catabolic

A condition in which muscle breakdown progresses due to a lack of nutrients in the blood.

The antonym for this is anabolic.



A curling motion when contracting the biceps.


antagonist muscle

Refers to muscles that act in the opposite direction to the actions of a specific muscle.

For example, the antagonist muscle for the biceps brachii is the triceps brachii, and the antagonist muscle for the quadriceps femoris is the biceps femoris.



This is one of the exercises to strengthen the triceps (triceps).

Hold a dumbbell in one hand and extend your arm behind you with your elbow slightly bent.

Do this while paying attention to the movement of your elbows.


candy drug

It is a banned drug used to increase muscle mass and can rapidly increase muscle mass and power.

However, its use should be avoided at all costs due to concerns about negative health effects.


make a sound

“Kikase” refers to using your muscles to the fullest.

For example, “working” your arm muscles with barbell curls means flexing your arms as much as possible to stimulate your biceps.



It is a unit of energy and is used instead of calories in muscle training.

It is used to measure the energy consumed by eating and exercising.



This is a type of push-up, and is an exercise performed while supporting the ground with one hand.

Helps improve your sense of balance and arm strength.



This is an exercise that strengthens your back muscles by holding a dumbbell in one hand, bending forward, and lifting your arms up.

This stimulates the latissimus dorsi and trapezius muscles.


captain’s chair

This is a machine for training your abdominal muscles, and it is equipped with a pad to support your body and a stand to rest your arms on.

By raising and lowering your legs with your knees bent, you effectively stimulate your abdominal muscles.


carrot bar

A bar-shaped device used for training, mainly used to strengthen the muscles of the chest and shoulders.

They are lighter than dumbbells and feature an easy-to-grip grip.


king deadlift

A type of deadlift, in which you lift a barbell with both hands.

It is an important training event that can effectively train your leg strength and back muscles.


kick jump

One of the exercises that strengthens the muscles of the lower body, jumping stimulates the quadriceps and hamstrings.


kingfisher exercise

This is an exercise that strengthens your core by standing on one leg and lifting a dumbbell in the other hand, which stimulates the muscles in your lower back and back.

A sense of balance is required.



This is an exercise to strengthen your back muscles, and is performed while lying face down on the floor.

Place your hands on the floor and lift your chest to stimulate your lats.


muscle pain

A phenomenon in which muscle overuse causes inflammation and pain.

This can be difficult for beginners, but it can be alleviated with the right training methods.


basal metabolism

The amount of energy consumed just by sleeping.

Muscle training increases your basal metabolism and creates a body that is easy to lose weight.


muscle fiber

Cells that make up muscle are long, thin fibers.


corporate training

Training such as muscle training and stretching provided by companies to manage the health of their employees and relieve stress.

The purpose is to promote employee health and improve productivity.


false muscle hypertrophy

A phenomenon in which apparent muscle hypertrophy occurs due to the accumulation of water and glycogen.

The balance of training methods and nutritional intake will have an impact.


citric acid

An organic compound that increases energy synthesis within muscles.

It is found in large amounts in citrus fruits and pickled plums, and is sometimes taken as a supplement.



A training exercise in which you lift yourself up, pull yourself up to your chest, then jump up to your shoulders before landing back down like a squat.

Effective for strengthening your core and improving explosive power by using your whole body.


grip strength

About hand grip strength. It is an important element for gripping a barbell or dumbbell, as well as for pull-ups and pull-ups, and improving your grip strength can increase the effectiveness of your training.



“Crunches” are a type of training that trains your abdominal muscles, and are a type of training that stimulates your abdominal muscles by repeating the action of lying on your back and then raising your upper body.

It is effective not only for strengthening your abdominal muscles, but also for core training and improving posture.


Glycemic index (GI value)

A value indicating the absorption rate when carbohydrates are ingested. When the GI value is high, blood sugar levels rise rapidly and insulin is secreted.

When consuming carbohydrates, it is desirable to choose foods with low GI values.



Supplements aimed at protecting joints.



A training method that combines various events.

By combining strength training, aerobic training, gymnastics, weight lifting, etc., we train the muscles of the whole body, hoping to improve muscle strength and lose weight.



Training to strengthen your chest muscles using a cable machine.

Stimulate your pectoral muscles by crossing your legs in front of your chest and spreading your arms apart.


crazy bell

Dumbbell training involves repeating movements like lifting a dumbbell.

It trains the whole body and is also effective for balance and core training.


cleansing stretch

Stretching is a yoga pose that loosens muscles and promotes blood circulation by stretching and twisting the body while breathing deeply.



A type of squat where you put one leg in front of the other and lower your hips.

Trains the muscles around your thighs, buttocks, and hips.


Good Morning

A training exercise in which you lean forward at the waist and bend your upper body while carrying a barbell on your back.

Effectively trains the muscles on the back of the thighs, buttocks, and around the waist.


grand arch

A training exercise in which you put your hands and feet on the ground and arch your back in a yoga pose.

It strengthens your back muscles while promoting the flow of internal organs and lymph nodes.



Bodyweight training that combines basic exercises such as push-ups, squats, and sit-ups.

You can train your whole body and especially have a diet effect.



Nutrients that provide energy for muscles when ingested with carbohydrates.

It is essential for muscle hypertrophy and is sometimes taken as a supplement.


cool down

An exercise that is performed after muscle training. It often refers to stretching.



A type of amino acid that makes up skin and cartilage.



A workout where you jump back and forth on a treadmill with one leg raised high.

You can do aerobic exercise and strength training at the same time, especially strengthening your lower body.


cross clutch

A type of step training in which you jump while crossing your legs.

It is effective for training the muscles of the whole body, especially leg strength and abdominal muscles.


gate swing

A type of training using kettlebells, in which you swing your arms back and forth and rock your body back and forth.

In addition to training your arm and back muscles, you can also train your lower body muscles at the same time.



Slang term for increasing muscle.


germanic body composition

A method to aim for a healthy body by measuring body fat percentage, muscle mass, bone mass, etc.

Since it measures the internal state of the body by passing electricity through it, it is possible to obtain accurate values.


concentric contraction

An exercise in which muscles exert force while contracting; an example of an arm curl would be lifting a dumbbell.

Also known as a positive contraction, the antonym is an eccentric contraction, which, if compared to an arm curl, would be the action of lowering a dumbbell.


compound event

An event that mobilizes multiple joints. It is a concept that is contrasted with isolation events, and refers to events that mobilize multiple joints and muscles.

Examples include push-ups, dumbbell presses, and dumbbell rows.



Training to improve physical abilities such as muscles and cardiopulmonary function.

This includes not only strength training, but also aerobic exercise and flexibility training.


core training

Training that focuses on strengthening the core, such as the abdominal muscles and back muscles.

It is considered to be an important training for improving the stability and balance of the entire body.



This refers to consciously using your muscles and moving with correct form.

When doing muscle training, it is important to have control.

You can use your muscles correctly and prevent injuries.



Refers to following a training plan or instructions.

For example, this includes exercising according to a trainer’s instructions and following dietary restrictions.


contrast bath

Also known as alternating hot and cold bathing, this bathing method is said to be effective in promoting recovery from muscle fatigue and injuries.

Alternating between soaking in hot water and ice water is said to promote blood circulation and promote muscle repair.


compression wear

Clothing that is said to promote muscle tension and reduce muscle fatigue and vibration when worn.

It is mainly used during training and sports competitions.



Indicates muscle contraction. When doing muscle training, it is essential to consciously contract.

At the same time, you can enjoy higher effects by maximally contracting your muscles.



Refers to the ability to effectively manipulate multiple muscles and movements.

When doing muscle training, you can exercise with accurate form by paying attention to your coordination.


cold pack

A cooling device that uses frozen gel packs or ice to provide a cooling effect on injured or inflamed areas.

It promotes injury recovery and relieves pain.


compression stockings

Refers to compression socks and tights that are effective in promoting blood circulation in the lower limbs and relieving fatigue.

It is also used during strength training and sports competitions to prevent muscle fatigue and damage.


conditioning coach

A coach who creates and instructs training programs to improve physical performance in training and sports competitions.

Develop appropriate training plans and help athletes improve their performance.


complete fitness

This refers to training that aims to train each element of the body in a balanced manner, such as whole body muscle strength, cardiopulmonary function, and flexibility.

It is used for a variety of purposes, including health maintenance, beauty, and sports competitions.



Refers to stiffness of muscles and joints. Stiffness limits your freedom of movement and makes you more susceptible to injury.

It is important to relieve the stiffness by stretching and massage.



It is a type of lipid in the blood, and high levels can make you more susceptible to diseases such as arteriosclerosis.

It is important to keep your cholesterol levels low by taking proper exercise and eating a well-balanced diet.


control unit

This is a device for adjusting the stimulation intensity, time, and pattern in electrical stimulators such as muscle stimulators and EMS.


core stretch

During core training, perform stretches to stretch the muscle groups that support your torso.

Helps improve flexibility and loosen core muscles.


concentration curl

This is a muscle training menu specifically designed to strengthen the biceps, and refers to the action of bending your arms while sitting.


compression wear

This clothing supports muscles and relieves fatigue.

It is used when aiming to improve performance in muscle training and sports competitions.



Refers to a muscle training menu that combines multiple events.

It trains multiple muscles at the same time, allowing for efficient training.


control set

A set that is performed during muscle training by paying attention to the speed and form of the movements while adjusting the weight.

By focusing on muscle contraction, you can perform more effective muscle training.


circuit training

Circuit training is a strength training method in which you perform ten or more exercises in succession without any intervals.

It is mainly suitable if you want to train the whole body evenly, but you need to carefully consider your time allocation to avoid overtraining.


side raise

This exercise involves lifting dumbbells in both hands and strengthening your shoulders from the center to the outside.

Raise your arms out to your sides and stimulate the muscles from the center of your shoulders to the outside.



It is a general term for nutritional supplements such as protein, BCAA, EAA, HMB, and creatine that are used for purposes such as muscle hypertrophy and weight loss.


thumbless grip

This refers to the way you grip the bar with your thumbs removed.

It has the advantage of directing the center of gravity vertically, and is often used in exercises such as the Smith bench press.



Refers to the muscle groups around the shoulders.

It is composed of three heads: front, middle, and rear, and represents the expanse of an inverted triangle.


The Six

This is a lower abdominal muscle training exercise in which you lift your legs while lying on your back.

Combine this with sit-up exercises to effectively train your lower abdomen.



This is an exercise that uses dumbbells to strengthen the muscles of the chest and arms, focusing on the shoulders.

Spread your elbows as you lift the dumbbells, stimulating a wide range of muscles.


punching bag

This training equipment uses a bag filled with sand and can be used for a variety of training purposes.


summersalt press

This exercise trains the muscles of your shoulders and legs by standing up and rolling forward.

Combine this with a squat after landing to effectively train your leg muscles.



This is a phenomenon in which men develop breasts that resemble those of women, and is thought to be caused by an increase in estrogen (female hormone) caused by the use of steroids.



This refers to taking various supplements at the same time.



This refers to the part of the muscle that is used to improve the stability of the trunk and joints.

This is commonly known as the “inner muscle.”


standard grip

The width of your hands gripping the barbell shaft is shoulder width.



To be more precise, they are called “anabolic steroids” and are strictly regulated as doping agents in the United States.

Although it is considered legal in Japan, some participants in physique and bodybuilding competitions are said to be using it illegally.

The use of steroids allows muscles to grow at an incredible rate, and those who use them are commonly referred to as “users”.

Many people suffer from side effects from steroids, which can even lead to death in the worst cases.

To be honest, it is the exact opposite of fitness (the concept of improving health), and it will be a total nuisance for athletes who take it seriously without using steroids (natural athletes).


strict form

It refers to a training movement that contracts muscles with appropriate postlation without using any recoil.

A contrasting concept is “cheating form.”


superset method

It is a training method in which two different exercises are performed consecutively to train the same body part or antagonistic muscles.



This refers to the action of stretching muscle fibers in order to return the muscle to its proper state.


Growth hormone

A hormone that affects the overall growth of the human body, and supports muscle development during training.

It is secreted in large quantities after exercise and during sleep.


fast twitch fibers

Muscles can be divided into fast-twitch and slow-twitch fibers, and fast-twitch fibers have the ability to exert large amounts of force in a short period of time.

Although it lacks stamina, it has explosive power.


soy protein

A type of vegetable protein made from soybeans.

It is easily digested and absorbed, and has a low risk of lifestyle-related diseases such as dyslipidemia.

Its amino acid score and utilization efficiency are comparable to animal whey protein and casein protein.


trapezius muscle

This muscle is primarily responsible for pulling the shoulder blades together.


teres major

These are muscles located on the sides of the body, specifically the armpits.

When viewed from the front, this muscle appears as a bulge near the armpit, and is especially popular among men.


pectoralis major

This is probably one of the areas that gets the most attention when it comes to muscle training.

This is a large muscle group that spreads from side to side in the chest and is divided into upper, middle, and lower parts.


body fat percentage

Body fat percentage is the percentage of fat stored in the body.


biceps femoris

The “biceps femoris” is commonly known as the “hamstrings” and refers to the part located on the back of the thigh.


dynamic stretch

Stretching is performed while moving, and rather than standing still, the idea is to soften the muscles by moving them and warming them up, rather than stretching them.


male hormone

It is a hormone that helps create a “masculine” body, and is secreted during intense muscle training and contributes to muscle hypertrophy.


hair removal

Hair may fall out because steroids suppress the secretion of the male hormone testosterone.


super recovery

This refers to the process by which muscles damaged by strength training recover and become bigger than before.

Bodybuilders and athletes use this super recovery to enlarge and develop their muscles.


slow twitch fibers

It refers to muscles that do not have instantaneous force but have excellent endurance, and the antonym is fast-twitch fibers.



Meaning “zuru”, it refers to a form of weight training that uses recoil to handle heavy weights, and is especially used when you want to mainly perform negative exercises.

The antonym is strict form.


cheat day

This refers to the day when you can temporarily eat whatever you like without worrying about calories during your diet.

It may be used to increase basal metabolism.



This is a common name for pull-up exercise.



Refers to twisting movements.


Tri-set method

This is a training method in which three different exercises are performed consecutively on one muscle, making one set.


narrow grip

Refers to the width of the hands that grip the barbell, and narrow means to grip the barbell narrowly.


narrow stance

This is the way you stand during training, with your legs spread about one leg apart.


negative reps

This is a popular muscle training method that research shows is the most effective when aiming for muscle hypertrophy.

For example, in the case of bench press, training methods include lifting a light weight and having an assistant apply weight only when lowering the barbell, or conversely, lifting a heavy weight with assistance and enduring it while lowering it.


partial reps

This training involves narrowing the range of motion compared to regular training, and is characterized by the ability to handle heavier loads within a narrower range of motion.



The muscle on the back of the thigh, specifically the biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus.


power grip

This is a muscle training item used for pull-type training (pulling motion using the hands), and is designed to prevent grip strength from tiring first and allow you to train while minimizing grip strength.

It is used for pull-ups, pull-downs, rows, etc.


Essential amino acids (EAA)

Refers to nine types of amino acids that cannot be synthesized.


pump up

This refers to a state in which metabolites accumulate during muscle training and draw water into the muscles.

If it looks bloated, it is described as having a “nice pump.”



Abbreviation for body mass index, calculated as weight (kg) ÷ (height (m) x height (m)).

22 is considered the standard value, but it is not a very suitable index for muscular people.



Some of the essential amino acids include valine, leucine, and isoleucine.

Extracted from EAA, three amino acids are provided as a supplement.


PFC balance

Refers to the balance and ratio of Protein, Fat, and Carbohydrate.

Calculated based on the amount of energy per gram of each nutrient, proteins and carbohydrates provide 4kcal of energy per gram, and fats provide 9kcal of energy per gram.


rectus abdominis

The abdominal muscles are the most superficial muscles that form the six-pack of the stomach.

In order for the rectus abdominis muscles to become visible, it is necessary to reduce body fat, and if you are aiming for a six pack, it is important to work on reducing body fat.


free weights

Refers to free movement muscle training performed using dumbbells or barbells.



Pull refers to the action of pulling back, and press refers to the action of pushing up.



It refers to protein, and is a type of health supplement used when you cannot get enough protein from meals alone, or when you want to get enough protein while on a diet.



It has several amino acids linked together and is characterized by extremely fast digestion.


whey protein

A protein made from whey, it is the fastest absorbed and has a high BCAA ratio.


machine training

This is a method of training that focuses on specific parts of the body using specialized equipment.

They are highly safe and move in a fixed manner, making it easier to concentrate on the body part you are training, and are less likely to cause injury to the body part you are training compared to free weights.



It is a supplement that mainly contains all the vitamins you need each day.

Vitamins are very important nutrients for trainees, so it is recommended that they actively use supplements.


aerobic exercise

This refers to any type of exercise that makes you breathe faster, such as running, stationary biking, or boxercise.

Usually, aim for about 20-30 minutes.


Lloyd guy

A derogatory expression used to ridicule men who use steroids, derived from the common name for steroids, “roid”.


wrist wrap

This is a muscle training aid to protect your wrists, used during heavy bench presses, etc.


reverse grip

A type of grip on the bar in which one hand has an overgrip and the other has an undergrip.



Refers to the number of movements in muscle training.

For example, in the bench press, one rep is one raise and lower.



This is a common exercise for back training and refers to an exercise in which the elbows are pulled back.


roid rage

This is a phenomenon in which steroid users become aggressive, and is said to cause anger and violent behavior.


wide grip

Grip the barbell shaft with your hands wide apart.


wide stance

This is the way you stand during training, with your legs wider than shoulder width apart and legs spread to the left and right.

It is mainly used for squats, etc., and can also be used for push-ups, planks, etc. depending on the position of the elbows.



At the end



How about a glossary of muscle training terms?


Muscle training is difficult even if it feels difficult during training.

After completing the task, you will feel refreshed and stress will be relieved.

It’s a very good training not only for your body but also for your mental stability.


If you have a busy daily life, please try muscle training.

It will surely relieve you from daily stress.

If you work hard, you should be able to see amazing changes in your body in about 3 months.


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