Arithmetic glossary! Basic math terms learned in elementary school

A collection of math terms used in elementary school


If you memorize all the math glossary, you too might become a genius!


School teachers can use this as a reference for their classes.



Arithmetic glossary




Refers to a situation in which the winner or loser is not determined in a game or competition between two or more people. In mathematics education, it may come up when learning about fair division and probability.



In a division calculation, it refers to the number that remains when it is not divisible. For example, in the calculation 7÷3, 2 is the quotient and 1 is the remainder.


give up calculation

When faced with an unsolvable arithmetic problem, this is a method to guess the final answer by looking at the calculation results and answers up to that point. Although it is sometimes used to save time during exams, it is generally considered a technique to be avoided as it trains basic calculation skills and logical thinking.


Atai (value)

A numerical value used in the exchange and evaluation of goods and services. In arithmetic, it is used to calculate money.


not much

The number that remains when it is not divisible by division. For example, if you divide 15 by 2, you will get a remainder of 7, which is 1.



To show quantities and relationships using numbers and symbols. For example, it is used as “representing three apples”.



Concepts that come up when learning units of distance and speed. It is especially fundamental to understanding the relationship between time and distance.



To add up two or more numbers or quantities. One of the basic operations in arithmetic, related to addition.



Do calculations in your head. This includes memorizing multiplication tables and training to quickly and accurately perform basic calculations such as addition and subtraction.



A number representing 1. It is the most basic number and serves as a starting point when counting.



It is read as “one piece” and represents one unit. Used to indicate quantity or number.


a week

It means one week and refers to seven days. Treated as a unit of time and used to count days.



It is read as “one number” and refers to a fixed number. It is sometimes used to indicate a specific quantity.



Pronounced “generalized number,” it is a term that refers to a certain general number. Used to refer to a number used in a mathematical concept or formula rather than a specific number.



It means color and is sometimes used in mathematics to color-code figures and graphs. It is used to visually show the differentiation and classification of data.



Rocks are sometimes used as examples of weight and mass in reading, arithmetic, and natural science studies. It is used in experiments to measure the weight of real objects.



Printing and reading, in mathematics education, refers to the act of printing graphs and charts on paper. It is an important process when learning the visual representation of data.



A term that indicates position or order, and is read as “above.” Used to explain shapes, number lines, rankings, etc.



Pronounced as “saucer,” in math classes, it may refer to a part of a scale used to measure weight, or a device used to receive measurements.



It is a term that is pronounced “behind” and indicates position or order. Denotes being located at the rear when viewed from a certain point. Used to explain relationships in time and space.



Pronounced as “thin,” it is an adjective that describes shape and size. It is used to express the characteristics of thin objects such as paper and boards. It may appear when learning the properties of shapes.



In arithmetic, it is read as “truncation,” which means rounding off, rounding up, or cutting down. This is a processing method to simplify numerical values ​​and make calculations easier.



Pronounced as “breakdown”, it shows the details of each part that makes up the total number or amount. It may be used when analyzing total amounts such as cost, points, weight, etc.



It is a term that is read as “back” and indicates the position and orientation. It is especially used to distinguish between the front and back of a figure, or to indicate that the back side will appear in probability problems.



Pronounced “inside out”, it means to reverse a certain state or order. In mathematics, it often appears as a problem-solving method that involves manipulating shapes or changing their order.



Pronounced “movement,” it means a change in position or movement. In math and science, it is related to calculating the distance and speed of an object.



Pronounced “video”, it refers to a method of visually showing shapes and mathematical operations using video equipment and computers. It is used in mathematics education to make concepts easier to understand.



It is read as “liquid number” and is used to express the amount of liquid. In particular, liters and milliliters are often used as units of capacity.



Pronounced as “circle”, it is one of the basic shapes in plane geometry. Refers to a closed curve in which all points are an equal distance from the center.



Pronounced “remote”, it means far away. In mathematics, this concept sometimes appears when measuring the distance between two points.



A quantity that indicates the size of an object. It is expressed in the form of length, area, volume, etc. and is the basis for comparison and measurement.



A large spoon used for cooking etc. In math class, it is sometimes mentioned as a unit to measure capacity.



About currency. In arithmetic, it is used to develop mathematical thinking in everyday life, such as calculating money and change.



A unit for measuring length or distance. In math, it is used to learn about units of length such as centimeters and meters.



means equal to or the same. In arithmetic, it is used to show that quantities, numbers, or shapes are the same.


The weight

A quantity that indicates the weight of an object. Used when learning units of weight such as grams and kilograms.



An object used to measure weight. It is used in measuring instruments such as balance scales, and is also used as a teaching material for understanding the concept of mass.




Pronounced as “number of times,” it is a numerical value that indicates the number of times a certain action or event is performed. For example, it refers to the number of times you roll a die or the number of times you take a test.



Pronounced “price”, it refers to the price of a product or service. In arithmetic, it is used to calculate money, consumption tax, etc.



Pronounced “multiplication”, it is a calculation operation that multiplies two or more numbers. One of the four basic arithmetic operations, used to calculate products.


put on

Performing multiplication operations. Applies multiplication to two numbers to find their product.



A term pronounced “shape” that indicates the appearance and structure of an object. When learning shapes, you will learn about different shapes such as squares, circles, and triangles.



Refers to solid objects or aggregates, and is often mentioned in mathematics, especially when measuring the state or volume of matter.


Let’s do it

Pronounced as “utilization,” in arithmetic and mathematics, the application of specific principles and laws to solving actual problems. This will improve your calculation skills and problem-solving abilities.



Pronounced as “function”, it refers to the correspondence relationship between numbers determined for a certain number. Although it is not covered in depth directly in elementary school, it provides the basis for understanding the relationships between numbers in diagrams and tables.



Pronounced “easy”, it means low difficulty. In mathematics, it is used for problems and concepts that are easy to understand.



It is pronounced “yellow”. As a color, it is used to indicate the color of diagrams, graphs, and objects. In mathematics, it can be useful for classifying and displaying data.



“Standards” refers to standards and conditions that products and services must meet. Although it is not directly covered in mathematics education, it is relevant when learning about quantities and dimensions and comes into contact with standard units and sizes.



Unlike “gas-solid”, it is read as “shape”. In mathematics, it is a basic term used to describe the types and characteristics of shapes.



Pronounced “standard”, it means a fixed point or level for evaluation or comparison. In arithmetic, it is sometimes used as a starting point for comparing numbers and as a standard unit of measurement.


I want to come

The word “expectation” is pronounced to mean the desire for a specific result or event to occur, but in arithmetic and mathematics, it is often used in the form of “expected value” to indicate the average result in the field of probability. there is.



Pronounced “rule”, it refers to a set procedure or law that a certain act or activity must follow. In arithmetic, it is used in relation to calculation procedures, rules for drawing shapes, and how to handle data.



Pronounced “sphere”, it refers to a three-dimensional figure in which all points are at equal distances from the center. In arithmetic and geometry, it is concerned with calculating the volume and surface area of ​​a sphere.



Pronounced as “distance,” it is a quantity that indicates the degree of spatial separation between two points. In math, they are frequently used in activities such as measuring lengths and measuring distances on maps.



It is read as “space”. The range in which an object exists or the area around the object. Understanding space is important when learning 3D shapes in math and geometry.



Pronounced as “separator”, it refers to symbols and methods for separating numbers, sentences, etc. In arithmetic, there are ways to write large numbers such as separating every 3 digits with a comma to make them easier to read.



A form of lottery determined by random selection. The lottery example is sometimes used as an introductory concept for learning probability and statistics.



Pronounced “distribute”, it means to distribute something equally or in a specific proportion to multiple people or places. In arithmetic, it is used in specific situations of division and in understanding the concept of fractions.



Creating new shapes and structures by combining multiple elements. In arithmetic and statistics, this concept is used for problems that involve finding the number of combinations.



Clarifying the differences and relationships in size, length, quantity, etc. between two or more objects or numbers. In arithmetic, it is extremely important as a basic skill for determining magnitude relationships and equality.


hollowed out

When adding, if the sum of a certain digit is 10 or more, add 1 to the next digit. This is one of the basic concepts in addition in arithmetic.



When subtracting, if a certain digit is missing, borrow 1 from the next higher digit. This is one of the basic concepts in subtraction in arithmetic.



It is pronounced “calculation”. It refers to the four arithmetic operations in mathematics (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) and the act of solving problems that apply them.



Pronounced “calculator”. Refers to tools and devices used to perform numerical calculations, such as calculators and computers. In mathematics education, it is sometimes used to increase the accuracy of calculations.



Read as “plan”. Thinking in advance about what you will do and how you will do it in the future. In mathematics, it is a concept used especially in managing time and resources, and in formulating problem-solving strategies.


Educational institution

Pronounced “calculation statement”. A document or notebook that records the process and results of calculations. Used in math assignments and tests to demonstrate calculation processes.



It is read as “system”. A group of things with similar characteristics or the process by which things develop. Arithmetic and mathematics emphasize the systematic study of the properties of numbers and calculation methods.



Read as “result”. An event or value obtained after a certain action or operation is completed. The answer you get after solving a math problem is also called a “result.”



It is pronounced “crystal”. A structure with a certain shape that appears when a substance becomes a solid. It is sometimes used as a reference when learning about shapes, symmetry, volume, etc. in math and science.



Pronounced “search”. The act of finding information. Although it is not directly used in mathematics education, it is an important skill for researching materials on the Internet and libraries.



It is read as “Kento”. To make a rough guess about a certain event. In mathematics, the ability to guess is developed as an elementary skill for predicting the answer to a problem.



Read as “exchange”. To replace a number or thing with another number or thing. In arithmetic, it is used to learn the commutative laws of addition and multiplication.



Pronounced “official”. A mathematical rule or formula that always holds true under certain conditions. In math, you will learn formulas for calculating area and volume.



Read as “answer”. The final result or solution of a problem or calculation. Numerical values ​​and information obtained after solving an arithmetic problem.



It is pronounced “mixed”. Bringing different things together. In arithmetic, this concept is sometimes applied to calculations involving different numbers, such as fractions and decimals.


upside down

It’s pronounced “upside down.” To put something in the opposite direction or order. In math, this term is sometimes used when learning reciprocals or when flipping shapes.



It is read as “down”. It means that the number decreases. For example, it is used to express changes in arithmetic problems, such as a decrease in temperature or a decrease in price.



A small cube, usually hexahedral, used to determine the outcome of something by chance. The plane has points from 1 to 6 and is often used when learning probability.


at the beginning

It’s pronounced “first.” The point at which something begins. Used in math problems to indicate the starting point for a sequence or operation.


As expected

It is read as “point”. In arithmetic, it refers to the act of pointing to a specific number or part of a figure to provide an explanation or clue to solving a problem.


Just now

It is read as “miskaku”. In geometry, it refers to the angles formed by two lines that intersect with a certain line, but whose positions are different but have the same size.



It is pronounced “triangle”. A figure with three sides and three angles. In arithmetic and geometry, students learn about the properties of triangles and how to calculate area.



It is pronounced “arithmetic”. The subject of learning basic knowledge about numbers and calculation techniques. It plays an important role in basic education in elementary schools.



It is read as “square”. A quadrilateral is a plane figure with four sides and four corners, and in elementary school arithmetic, children especially learn about the properties of squares and rectangles and how to calculate area.



Arithmetic expressions are expressions that use numbers and symbols to express mathematical relationships and calculation processes.

Expressions include numbers, arithmetic symbols (for example, + for addition, – for subtraction, × for multiplication, ÷ for division), and sometimes parentheses.

Formulas are used to represent specific mathematical problems or situations and provide rules or procedures for calculations to solve the problem.

For example, an expression that adds two numbers is written as “3 + 4,” which means adding 3 and 4.

Expressions can take many forms, from simple calculations to complex mathematical relationships.


In elementary school math, the following formulas are often used:

  • Addition: 5+2 
  • Subtraction: 5−2 
  • Multiplication (multiplication): 5 × 2 
  • Division (division): 5 ÷ 2 
  • Mixed calculation: (5+3)×2 



all day long

Pronounced “natural numbers”. A positive integer (1, 2, 3, …) excluding 0. In arithmetic, a number is the starting point for counting and performing basic calculations.



Read as “surroundings”. The distance that goes around the outside of a closed curve or figure. In arithmetic, it is particularly relevant to calculating the perimeter of a shape.



Pronounced “shrinkage”. to reduce in size or scale. In arithmetic and geometry, students draw miniature diagrams of shapes and use ratios to learn the relationship between the actual size and the size of the diagram.



Pronounced as “decimal”. A number with an integer part and a decimal part. In arithmetic, students will learn the four arithmetic operations for decimals and mutual conversion between decimals and fractions.



It is pronounced “mathematics”. Arithmetic is a subject in which students learn the concepts and skills that form the basis of mathematics, and learning in elementary school lays the foundation for mathematical thinking and calculation skills.



Pronounced as “number”. It is a symbol that represents the numbers from 0 to 9, and is an essential element for representing numbers in arithmetic.



Although it is pronounced “sequence”, it is rarely dealt with directly in elementary school mathematics. It refers to numbers arranged according to certain rules, and is a more advanced mathematical concept.


a little

It is read as “a little”. It represents a small quantity, and is sometimes used in arithmetic for comparisons and measurements.



Read as “all.” It means that all things in a certain range are included without exception, and is used in arithmetic to explain the concept of a set.



Pronounced as “integer”. A set of numbers that includes positive integers, 0, and negative integers, but does not include decimal points or fractions. In arithmetic, this is a very important concept as the basis of calculations.



It is read as “product”. The number obtained as a result of multiplication. For example, the product of 3 × 4  is 12  . It is one of the basic calculation operations in arithmetic.



It is read as “line”. A geometric concept that connects points, including straight lines, curves, and polygonal lines. It is a basic element when learning shapes in arithmetic and geometry.



Pronounced as “line segment”. A part of a straight line that has endpoints, and refers to the shortest distance that includes both endpoints. It is one of the basic elements that make up figures in arithmetic and geometry.



Pronounced “velocity”, it is a quantity that indicates the percentage of time required to travel a certain distance. The concept of velocity is covered in the basic math unit to understand the relationship between distance, time, and speed.


Taiseki (volume)

Refers to the amount of space occupied by a solid figure. For example, cubic meters (㎥) and cubic centimeters (㎤) are used as units of volume.


Takasa (height)

Refers to the vertical distance between the top and bottom surfaces of an object. For example, a desk height of 70cm means that the vertical distance from the floor to the top of the desk is 70cm.


Addition (addition)

It is one of the basic arithmetic operations and is a method of calculating the sum of two or more numbers. For example, 2 + 3 = 5. Add 2 and 3 to get 5.


tani (unit)

Refers to a standard for measuring quantities. Units of length include meters and centimeters, and units of weight include kilograms and grams.


Chisai (small) / Chiisai (small)

An adjective used when comparing numbers and sizes. For example, compare two numbers such as “5 is less than 8.”


Chohoukei (rectangle)

A geometric figure that refers to a figure whose diagonals are equal and whose interior angles are all right angles (90 degrees).


Chokusen (straight line)

It refers to the shortest line that directly connects points. It is one of the basic elements when handling shapes in arithmetic and mathematics.


Chuukan (middle)

Refers to a point or value that is exactly in between two numbers or positions. This is a concept used when calculating average values.


Tsuika (addition)

In arithmetic calculations and problem solving, it refers to the act of adding (adding) one number to another. For example, you can find the sum by “adding” one number to another.


Passage (number of passes)

Refers to the number of numbers or things that meet certain conditions. Although it is not often used as a direct term in math classes, you may come across it during the process of learning about data aggregation and analysis.



It is especially used in solving problems related to weight and quantity. For example, when comparing the weight of objects using a balance, this term refers to the state in which both sides are “balanced.”



When shopping, it refers to the remaining amount after subtracting the product price from the amount paid. This is used in math problems such as calculating money.


Teigi (definition)

Used in mathematics and arithmetic to explain the precise meaning of a term or concept. For example, the “definition of parallel lines” refers to straight lines that do not intersect with each other.


Ten (point)

One of the basic elements in geometry, used to indicate position. Points have no size, area, or volume; they only represent location.


Test (constant)

It refers to a number that does not change, and is a number that maintains a constant value in arithmetic and mathematical expressions. For example, pi (3.14…) is an example of a constant.


Tokei (clock)

Used as a basic tool when learning time. It frequently appears in questions about how to read a clock and calculate time.


Takei (statistics)

It is used when learning how to collect, organize, and derive information from data. Includes graphing and concepts such as mean, median, and range.



Nagasa (length)

It is one of the basic quantities that measures the distance from one end of an object to the other. Use units such as meters (m), centimeters (cm), and millimeters (mm).


Nijukei (icosagon)

A polygon that has 20 sides and 20 vertices. In the study of shapes, students are treated to deepen their understanding of the properties of polygons and the relationships between edges and vertices.


One minute (


An expression that expresses a fraction, indicating one of the two equal parts of the whole. As a basic concept, fractions play an important role in operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.


Ninzu (number of people)

Refers to the number of individuals in a group or group. This concept is frequently used in problems such as counting, comparing, and dividing people.


Nedan (price)

Refers to the amount of money required to purchase goods and services. It frequently appears in problems related to real life, such as calculating money in arithmetic, calculating consumption tax, and calculating discounts and increases and decreases.


Aim (goal)

Refers to the goal or intention in solving a math problem or activity, but it is not a specific math concept, but rather a general term related to learning objectives and goal setting.


Nozomi arithmetic (subtraction arithmetic)

It is also called “subtraction” or “subtraction”. A method of calculating the difference by subtracting one number from another. For example, subtracting 3 from 5 equals 2.


stretch (stretch)

In geometry problems, it may refer to lengthening a line or extending a number sequence or pattern according to a certain rule. However, this is a word used to explain specific mathematical operations and processes, and is rarely treated as a specific term.


Haba (width)

Refers to the distance from one side of an object or figure to the opposite side. For example, the length of the short side of a rectangle is called the width.


Hankei (radius)

Refers to the distance from the center of a circle or sphere to its periphery or surface. This is a basic concept frequently used in calculations involving circles and spheres.


Hanbun (half)

It refers to one of the halves of the whole. Expressed as a fraction

corresponds to It is treated in arithmetic as a basic concept of division and comparison.


Yes (range)

It refers to the difference between the minimum and maximum value that data or numbers can take. It is one of the basic concepts of statistics used to show the degree of dispersion of data.


Subtraction (subtraction)

This is a calculation method to reduce the number. For example, subtracting 2 from 5 equals 3. It is learned early in elementary school mathematics as one of the four basic arithmetic operations.


One digit (single digit)

Indicates that the number is a single digit. It refers to the numbers from 0 to 9, and is the basis for learning the size and scale of numbers in arithmetic.


Hiramen (flat)

It refers to a two-dimensional surface that has only length and width, and whose thickness can be ignored. Planar shapes include triangles, squares, and circles.


Hiratai (flat)

Indicates that an object or figure with two-dimensional characteristics is flat. In mathematics, this property is important when learning the properties of plane figures, but the expression “flat” is not often used.


Hail (front)

It organizes information and data so that it can be viewed at a glance. It is often used when dealing with data in arithmetic and mathematics, and develops the ability to visually understand data by creating graphs and tables.


Hiritsu (ratio)

A term used to indicate the ratio of two numbers, the proportion of a part to a particular whole, or the relationship between two different quantities. For example, this could be the ratio of boys to girls in a class.


fukusu (plural)

Refers to two or more numbers or things. This is a concept used in arithmetic when counting and comparing numbers.


Takasa (depth)

It refers to the vertical distance from the surface of an object or place to the bottom. This is an important concept when measuring volume and capacity.


Bunsu (fraction)

It is a mathematical expression that shows a part of a whole divided into equal parts. It consists of a numerator and a denominator and plays a very important role in arithmetic and mathematics.


Heihou (square)

Refers to the operation of squaring a number. For example, the square of 4 is 16. It is often used when calculating area.


Let’s go (parallel)

It refers to a relationship in which two straight lines never intersect. It is an important concept in geometry.


Hen (side)

Refers to part of the lines that form a shape. In particular, it refers to the lines that make up each face of a polygon or polyhedron.


Maru (yen)

A figure formed by a collection of points that are equidistant from a point on a plane. You will learn the properties of circles, the length of their circumference, and how to calculate the area of ​​a circle.


straight (straight line)

It refers to the shortest line that extends directly from one point to another. The properties of straight lines, points on straight lines, line segments, etc. are dealt with in arithmetic and geometry.


turn (rotate)

This refers to moving a figure around one point without changing its angle. The concept of rotation is covered when learning to transform shapes.


Round (round)

It refers to the shape of circular or spherical objects, but in mathematics, we learn about the properties of concrete shapes such as “circle” and “sphere” rather than the adjective “round.”


Mijikai (short)

Used when comparing lengths. For example, when comparing the lengths of two line segments, we say “line segment A is shorter than line segment B”.


Menseki (area)

A quantity that represents the size of the surface of a shape. For example, the area of ​​a rectangle or square is calculated as “base x height”, and the unit is square meters (m2). Calculating area is widely studied in elementary school mathematics.


Memori (scale)

This is a mark on measuring instruments such as rulers, measuring tapes, and thermometers. This is an important concept for accurate readings when measuring length or temperature in math.


most (most)

Indicates what has a certain characteristic to the greatest extent within a group or number. For example, it is used when learning comparisons and order in the form of “largest number” and “smallest number.”


measuring stick (ruler)

A tool for measuring length. It is often used in math classes to draw straight lines and measure lengths.


Yakusuu (divisor)

An integer that can divide a certain integer. For example, the divisors of 6 are 1, 2, 3, and 6. Concepts related to divisors form the basis of learning about factorization and the greatest common divisor in elementary school.


Yoko (horizontal)

Refers to the width of a shape and is used to compare the length and width. For example, when measuring the length and width of a rectangle, it shows how much the “horizontal length” is.


Volume (volume)

A unit that measures the amount of space occupied by a three-dimensional figure. Liters (L) and cubic meters (㎥) are used to express amounts of liquids and solids.


Ransu (random number)

It refers to a number that is randomly selected within a certain range, but it is not a concept that is directly taught in elementary school math. Advanced concepts related to statistics and probability.


Ryo (quantity)

It is a numerical representation of the quantity, size, and degree of something. In mathematics, we measure and calculate various “quantities” such as length, weight, and capacity.


Ritsu (rate)

A number that indicates the proportion of a part to a whole. It is often expressed as a percentage, and is an important concept when learning proportions and probability in mathematics.


Ritaikei (three-dimensional form)

Refers to three-dimensional shapes, including spheres, cylinders, cubes, etc. You will learn about calculating volume and surface area.


Rippo Kei (cubic shape)

It is a type of solid figure, and refers to a solid object in which all sides are squares. It is also commonly called a “cube” and is used in volume calculations.


Lulu (rule)

Refers to the basic rules and procedures of calculation in arithmetic and mathematics. For example, there are rules regarding the order of arithmetic operations and the properties of shapes. When learning arithmetic, various “rules” are introduced in order to understand accurate calculations and how to handle shapes.


Rei (zero)

It refers to “0” and is a fundamental number in the concept of numbers. It plays an important role in four arithmetic operations such as addition and subtraction.


Reika (example)

Explaining a problem or concept using concrete examples to help understand it. In mathematics, when learning new concepts, students deepen their understanding through examples.


Renzoku (continuous)

Indicates that events or numbers continue without interruption according to certain rules or conditions. For example, a sequence of consecutive numbers or an operation.


Ronri (logic)

Logical thinking in arithmetic and mathematics is important in the process of drawing inferences and conclusions when solving problems. Developing the ability to think logically is a fundamental and important skill in learning mathematics.


share (ratio)

A number that indicates the ratio of a part to a whole. It is often expressed as a percentage, and percentage calculations are used in a variety of problems.


Warizan (division)

An operation that divides a number into equal parts, or a calculation that determines how many times one number is contained in another number. Division is one of the four arithmetic operations, along with addition, subtraction, and multiplication, and is a basic arithmetic skill.


Divisible (divisible)

It means that when one number is divided by another number, the remainder is 0. Divisibility is an important concept in understanding divisors and multiples.


too much division

It refers to the number that remains undivided when you do division. Finding the quotient and remainder of division is a common problem in arithmetic.




At the end



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