rugby glossary


rugby glossary



A clash between men and men!

Always run at full speed chasing after the opponent with the ball!


Rugby is a sport that requires a lot of physical and mental strength.

Its power gives viewers a strong sense of elation.

Once you watch a rugby match, you’ll instantly fall in love with it.


This page provides a summary of rugby terminology.


People who want to find out about rugby in preparation for the World Cup

This page is aimed at people who simply want to enjoy watching rugby, and those who want to try rugby from now on.

I hope this will be useful to everyone who is interested in rugby.


early engagement

It is a foul to form a scrum before the referee’s “set” call and the opponent will be awarded a free kick.


early tackle

A tackle made before the opponent has possession of the ball is a foul and will result in a penalty kick.

In rugby, it is important to have a fighting spirit, but be sure to follow the rules!


early push

Pushing an opponent in a scrum before the ball is thrown in is a foul and the opponent will be awarded a free kick.

Please follow the rules and play like a gentleman.


I system

The Italian national team specializes in attacking from signature plays, and they mainly attack from set plays by arranging the Bucs players vertically (like the letter I).



Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa are three countries in the South Pacific that regularly participate in the Rugby World Cup, and are characterized by their large bodies and many players with excellent athletic ability.


accidental offside

Offside occurs by accident when a player with the ball collides with a teammate in front of him.

The game is restarted from that point with a scrum of the opponent’s ball.


up and under

A tactic of kicking high and putting pressure on the opponent as they try to catch the ball, winning the ball and then going on the attack again.

This tactic is also commonly referred to as a “kick and rush.”



If the referee determines that the area or situation where the foul was committed is more advantageous than the position where the foul was committed, play may continue without interrupting the game.

Then, if the fouled team is at a disadvantage, the foul will be applied retroactively.

Same advantage as used in futsal (soccer)


advantage over

The referee determines that the team that has gained an advantage continues to attack, has an advantage, and does not need to call a foul.

With this signal, the advantage is eliminated.


After match function

After a game, all the players, friends and foes, gather together to share drinks and snacks and praise each other.

University students and above may occasionally enjoy a light drink. Also simply called a “function.”



Literally, it refers to the situation in which players are standing in a line, and is used to express whether the alignment was good or bad.

It is used during attack and defense and is called alignment instead of attack line or defense line.



This refers to a situation where the offense and defense have switched due to turnovers or mistakes by the opponent, and the play is not yet in order.

Unstructured attacks present great opportunities, so each player’s judgment is extremely important.


umbrella defense

A defensive tactic in which center and midfield players step forward to form an umbrella-like shape while forming a defensive line. This aims to block the opponent’s outside passes and prevent them from developing.


yellow card

A 10-minute suspension (sin bin) will be given for serious or repeated violations.


illegal wheels

This is a foul for intentionally spinning a scrum, and the opposing team will be given a penalty kick.



This is the area between the goal line and the dead ball line, and if you ground the ball into this area of the opponent’s side, it will be a try.

If the ball is brought in and grounded in your own in-goal, the game will be restarted with a 5m scrum of the opponent’s ball.


Injury time

This refers to the time during which a match is interrupted due to injury treatment, etc.

Injuries in rugby are commonplace. But the man who fights is cool!



This is the act of stealing an opponent’s pass midway through, and if this is successful, a great opportunity will be created.



The word expresses “intensity,” and high-intensity games are essential for improving team strength.


intentional knock-on

To be more precise, it is called a delayed knock-on, and it is an act of deliberately knocking the ball away, or otherwise disrupting the opponent’s play. If this foul prevents a try, a penalty try may be awarded.


Wing (WTB)

This is a position for the Bucs and is more accurately called a wing-three quarterback.

Their main job is to score tries, and they usually wear numbers 11 or 14.


HIA (Head Injury Assessment)

This is a process in which a player suspected of having a concussion is temporarily removed from the game and a professional confirms the concussion.

Temporary replacement players are allowed for a maximum of 10 minutes.


8 single

This is an attack that starts from the scrum, and this is a signature play in which No. 8 (number eight) picks up the ball from the scrum and attacks it himself.

It is especially often seen in scrums in front of the goal, and refers to the No. 8 taking the ball, drawing the opponent, and then passing the ball to the SH (scrum half).

This play is also commonly known as “89” (Hachikyuu).


S&C (strength and conditioning)

This term not only strengthens each player’s physical fitness and fitness, but also includes conditioning adjustments in preparation for games and competitions.

Nowadays, it is common for amateur athletes (not professional athletes) to adjust their conditioning even in competitions.

Let’s hope for the match in perfect condition.



A term used to refer to the edge of the field along the sideline.


Area management

It refers to assembling a game taking into account the position (area).

If you take over the area and spend more time in the enemy’s half, you increase your chances of scoring a try or a penalty goal, but conversely, if you spend more time in your own half, you give your opponent a chance to score.

How to fight in enemy territory, how to escape from your own territory, and how to use kicks are important.



A foul for falling to the opponent’s side in a ruck, preventing the ball from coming out.

For this action, the opposing team will be awarded a penalty kick.



It is usually used with expressions such as “formed an overlap” or “an overlap occurred.”

In modern rugby, multiple phases are encouraged, but a situation where the number of attackers is greater than the number of defenses by the opponent is called “overlap”.

This presents a huge opportunity for the attacking side.


open side

The side with the longer distance from the scrum, ruck, etc. to the touchline.

In contrast, the shorter side is called the blind side.


all blacks

Nicknamed the New Zealand national team, it is known as the world’s strongest rugby nation.

Its origin lies in the fact that they wore black uniforms, pants, and socks.

The All Blacks are the only team to have beaten all their opponents, winning the World Cup in 1987, 2011 and 2015.

They are also famous for performing the Haka, a Maori dance from New Zealand, before matches.



Involvement in play from before the ball is prohibited, and the opposing team will be awarded a penalty kick for this offense.



This is the act of interfering with an opposing player who does not have the ball, and this foul will result in a penalty kick being awarded to the opposing team.


feet off

In accordance with the basic principles of rugby, players must play ‘on feet’, with both feet on the ground.

The opposite situation, that is, the state where the feet are not on the ground, is the act of obstructing the opponent’s ball in the “off feet” state.

This is a foul such as not roll away or over the top.


off road pass

Refers to a pass made while being tackled.

Even if you are tackled and are about to fall down, don’t give up and pass the ball to your teammate!



This refers to the position behind the player who has the ball and can participate in the play.


counter rack

This refers to a play in which, after the opponent has formed a ruck, the player enters the ruck straight from behind, pushes the opponent’s support players together, and gets over the ball to cause a turnover.

This is also called an “overrack” or “tiger” by some teams.

You need to be careful and if you don’t go straight in from behind or don’t grab your opponent’s support player firmly, you’ll end up getting penalized.


kick off

This is the act of kicking the ball from the center of the halfway line into the opponent’s team to begin the game.

If the kicked off ball does not reach the opponent’s 10m line, it will be kicked again or a center scrum of the opponent’s ball will be performed.


kick pass

A pass in which the ball is kicked with the foot, and is mainly used by standoffs and others to kick the ball forward and cover distances that cannot be reached with a hand pass.

Communication between the player kicking (mainly standoff) and the player receiving the kick (WTB, etc.) is very important.



Refers to moving in the opposite direction to the flow of the attack. This is a play tactic that uses the point of contact as a starting point to switch the ongoing attack and move in the opposite direction.



It is a symbol of having played in an international match between national teams, and its origin comes from the fact that players originally wore hats to distinguish them.

When you are selected as a representative, you are given a hat, which is the origin of the word “cap”.



This is a space created by an unorganized defensive line, and attackers may attack by targeting this gap.


carry (ball carry)

This refers to the act of moving forward with the ball, and the player who does this is called a “ball carrier.”

To win, move forward, move forward, move forward!


carry bag

This refers to bringing the ball into your own in-goal and grounding it.

If the opponent brings it in, it will restart with a dropout.


water supply rules

Water will normally be provided twice, once in the first half and once in the second half, unless the temperature is high or the referee allows it.

Additional water must be provided behind the team’s own dead ball line or in the team’s technical zone, usually after a try.

Water cannot be dispensed by the Head Coach or Director of Rugby.


Gyoza ears

This is a condition that often occurs in forward players, and refers to a condition in which the ear becomes hard due to internal bleeding due to rubbing during tackles or scrums. It is also commonly called “cauliflower ear”.


quick throw-in

Refers to the act of quickly throwing the ball in after it leaves the touchline, before the lineout is formed.

However, only if the ball does not hit an obstacle, the ball must be thrown from behind the point where it broke the touch.



This is the first call the referee makes when forming a scrum.

In response to this call, the three forwards in the front row bent down and took a position to form a scrum.



Allowing the ball held by a player to touch the ground

Or, it refers to falling down by holding the ball on the ground with your hands or anywhere from your neck to your waist.



An act in which a player with the ball runs in a straight line and intentionally bumps into an opponent to score points.

This is mainly carried out by forwards and centers.


grabber kick

It is a short kick that rolls on the ground, and is also commonly called a “goropan”.


clean out

Refers to a play in which the attacker pushes an opposing player away at the breakdown, allowing the attacking team to get the ball out more effectively.

In particular, the goal is to get under the opponent or roll (grasp the torso and roll) to force the opponent back and make it easier to get the ball out quickly.


gain line

An imaginary line drawn parallel to the goal line from the center of a scrum, lineout, ruck, maul, etc.

Crossing this line is considered to be progress, and is sometimes expressed as “breaking the gain line.”


goal line dropout

Under the new rules introduced in August 2021, play will be resumed with a dropout from any position on the goal line in the following cases:

If an attacking player is knocked on in the opponent’s in-goal, if the ball is held up in the attacking player’s in-goal, or if an attacking player’s kick is grounded in the opponent’s own in-goal.


pentagon attack

This refers to set plays, which Tokai University Osaka Kousei excels at, especially sign plays from scrums.

The five members of the back line are arranged in a pentagonal formation and they develop attacks to break down the opponent.



It refers to marking a Toymen player or being marked by a Toymen player.


5m scrum

A scrum is formed 5m from the goal line.

This restart method is mainly used when carrying back (the defense brings the ball into their own in-goal and grounds it).


Collapse Thing

A penalty kick may be awarded to the opponent for intentionally breaking a scrum or maul.



A word that refers to contact or collision, and has recently been used to refer to a variety of contact plays.


contest kick

This refers to a kick used to create a situation where a teammate or enemy competes for the ball. “Contest” is a word that indicates conflict or competition.


conversion kick

A kick taken after a try, from the point where the try was confirmed.

If successful, 2 points will be added. This kick is also commonly referred to as a “goal kick.”


GPS (Global Positioning System/Satellite)

“GPS” is an abbreviation for Global Positioning System, which refers to a satellite positioning system.

During training and matches, players use GPS to capture and utilize data.

During games, it is worn on the back of the jersey, and during practice, it is worn as a bra-like device under the shirt.



“Shape” in a broad sense includes the “attack shape” of attack tactics, but when “shape” is referred to alone, it usually refers to the positioning of FW or BK during an attack.

In recent years, it has become common for three forwards to form an “arrow” shape and stand shallowly.

Also, the shape from the counter is called a “shape”, and requires a certain positioning and standing position.


jackler safety

A cleanout that targets the lower body of the player challenging the jackal on the defensive side (jacker) or causes a strong impact to the lower body will be subject to a penalty.



It refers to a play in which the player steals the ball from a fallen player.The Jackal was nicknamed “The Jackal” after former Australian representative George Smith’s specialty, and eventually became the name of the play itself.


shadow break

This refers to a player placed directly behind the downer or inside the backdoor player, and is positioned in such a way that it is difficult to be nominated.



Refers to the direction of flow in which the attack starts from the point of contact at the rack or maul when attacking.


short line out

This refers to a lineout in which all seven forwards do not participate, but only a small number of people, such as 3 or 4, and at least 2 or more people are required.


shot clock

This is part of the rules introduced for the 2023 Rugby World Cup to shorten the time.

A goal kick (conversion kick) after a try must be taken within 90 seconds, and a penalty kick after an opponent’s foul must be taken within 60 seconds.

If the time limit is exceeded, the application will be invalidated and will result in a failure. The predetermined time will be displayed on the stadium vision and broadcast.


shoulder charge

This is a dangerous tackle, and violently hitting the opponent with your shoulder or elbow is a foul and will result in a penalty kick being awarded to the opposing team.


sin bin

If a player repeatedly engages in malicious or dangerous play, that player will be temporarily sent off for 10 minutes.

In this case, the referee will show the player a yellow card.



A play that occurs when the game is restarted after a minor offense such as a knock-on or a slow forward.

Eight forwards from both teams form a scrum according to the referee’s instructions.

Players take a position called “crouch”, connect with their opponents with “bind”, and scrum begins with “set”.


Scrum half (SH)

A player in the backs’ position who plays the role of supplying the ball from the forwards to the backs. They are part of the so-called halfbacks, and their uniform number is usually number 9.



Originally a military term for “squad”, in rugby it is used to refer to players on a specific team.


Standoff (SO)

A player who plays as a playmaker in the backs’ position.

He is part of the halfback team and his normal jersey number is number 10.



Stealing refers to stealing the ball from an opponent, especially the act of stealing the ball from an opponent at a lineout.

A steal is an important play that deprives the opponent of an opportunity to attack and creates an advantageous development for the defender.



A state in which attack and defense are arranged in an orderly manner. On the other hand, when the formation is disordered, it is called unstructured.



Nickname of the South African national team. The Springbok is South Africa’s national animal and is a bovid that lives in the savannah.

The plural of this animal is called springbok.

It used to be the nickname for the entire South African team, but at some point a change was proposed.

However, Mandela, the president at the time, single-handedly overturned that proposal, and it remains in place today.

This anecdote is also depicted in detail in the movie “Invictus”. They won the 2019 World Cup for the third time.


Three Cheers

After the game, after the captain or leader says “Three cheers for ○○”, they give a thumbs up while saying “hip, hip”.

A ritual in which the other players also raise their thumbs and say “hooray.” Because this is repeated three times, it is called “Three Cheers” (Banzai Sanshou).

It is a ritual of exchanging cheers, and after it is over, the opposing team does the same.


slow forward

A foul for throwing the ball forward. This happens when the match is restarted at the opponent’s scrum.



A player who plays the role of throwing the ball into a rugby lineout.

The hooker usually plays this role, but other players may also do it.



To play skillfully around the outside of the defender.



A play where you throw yourself out and secure the ball on the ground.



The last of three calls made by the referee during a scrum. This call creates a scrum.


set play

Plays to restart the match, such as scrums, lineouts, and kick-offs.

Also called set piece.



Rugby sevens is played 7 on 7, with each half lasting 7 minutes.

This format was invented in 1883 by a butcher in Melrose, southern Scotland.

From 2016, it became an official sport at the Rio de Janeiro Olympics in Brazil.


Center (CTB)

The official position of the Bucs is center three-quarterback.

The number on the left is “12” and the number on the right is “13.” Normally, the inside center on the side closest to the scrum or lineout wears “12,” and the outside center on the side farther away wears “13.”


center scrum

A scrum is formed in the middle of the halfway line.

This occurs during kick-offs when the ball does not reach the 10-meter line, or when the ball is directly touched out.



Disciplinary action taken after an extremely dangerous and serious offense or receiving a second yellow card. The referee shows a red card.


direct touch

A ball kicked in front of one’s own 22m line that goes directly outside the touchline. In this case, the opponent will restart the match with a lineout.


touch kick

A kick that kicks the ball outside, primarily outside the touchline. This is done with the purpose of recovering the area.



A play in which the ball is kicked out and caught with the body. In this case, even if the ball hits your hand and falls forward, it will not be a knock-on.



Indicates the point to attack. The area directly above the breakdown is sometimes referred to as Channel 0, the inside as Channel 1, the midfield as Channel 2, and the outside as Channel 3.


chalk tackle

A tackle that involves hugging the opponent’s upper body and getting involved in the opponent’s ball.

However, actually tackling him in the neck would be a foul.

One player may stop the opponent with a choke tackle, form a maul, and steal the ball, or a teammate may follow and aim to stall the maul (maul unplayable).


Choco bread

A slightly higher punt kick.

He often attempts to retake the ball by kicking behind the opponent’s defensive line.


chop tackle

The most popular and basic tackle. Chop means “to cut with an axe, etc.,” and is characterized by a low tackle to the opponent below the waist.

If there are allies around you, you can jackal after the opponent falls.


T.M.O Television Match Official

Also called a television judge, this is a position in charge of video judging.


Deliberate knock-on

Also called an intentional knock-on, it refers to the act of intentionally hitting the ball to knock it on.

“Deliberate” here means “intentional,” and the official name is Deliberate Knock-On.


technical zone

This is a 3m x 18m area in front of their own bench, and the manager or head coach must give instructions from this area.

Additionally, water supplies other than the designated times must be done in this area or behind the dead ball line.



Also called dummy runners or blockers, they refer to players who act as decoys used in hunting.

In modern rugby, a common tactic is to use decoys to deceive the opponent’s drift defense and launch an outward attack.


test match

Refers to international matches between national representatives.



This refers to the area as a whole, including elements of battle for position, and securing a “territory” is strategically important in rugby.

The closer you are to the enemy’s territory, the more opportunities you have to score; conversely, the closer you are to your own territory, the greater the risk of allowing your opponent to score.

Territory is almost synonymous with area, and area management means acquiring territory.


Toymen (face-to-face)

Refers to the opponent facing you on the attack or defense line.

Originally a mahjong term, it refers to the person sitting across from you at the table.


driving mall

A play in which the opponent is pushed into the shape of a maul.



The movements of the tackler before entering the tackle and the method of driving the opponent into a corner.



Switching the phase from attack to defense and from defense to attack.


drift defense

A form of defense. When the opponent passes the ball, the player who was marking it flows, and the goal is to eventually add the touchline to the team and create a 2-on-1 situation.

Although it may allow the opponent to gain, it is an organized defensive strategy that rarely leads to failure.


Drop out

A method of restarting the match with a dropkick, in which the ball bounces once on the ground and then is kicked.

It is played when a penalty goal misses and the defender grounds the ball in the in-goal, or when the attacker brings the ball into the in-goal and fails to ground it.

There are 22m dropouts and dropouts from the goal line.


drop kick

A kick in which the ball is kicked after it falls to the ground.


drop goal

A goal in which the ball is drop-kicked between the opponent’s goal posts and over the crossbar. If this play is successful, you will get 3 points.


Number eight (NO8)

A central position in the third row of forwards (third row, back row) located at the end of the scrum.

This player’s uniform number is usually represented by “8”.



Intentionally kneeling or attempting to break form in a scrum or ruck is an illegal act.

This awards the opponent a penalty kick or a free kick.


22m dropout

Resumption at 22m dropout will occur in the following cases:

Unscored penalty goals, drop goals, and when the defender grounds the ball into the opponent’s in-goal or the ball becomes dead.

Additionally, if the attacking team is dead (out of bounds) due to the opponent’s in-goal, the game will be restarted using this method.


22m line

A distinctive and important line in rugby.

A rule is applied that gives the defense an advantage between the 22m line and the goal line.

A kick kicked from this area does not constitute a “direct touch” even if it does not bounce, and a “fair catch” is recognized if the ball is caught by the opponent without a bound.


neck roll

During a clean-out (a play in which you tear your opponent away with a breakdown), it is a violation (penalty) to put your hands on your opponent’s neck and knock him sideways.

On the other hand, there is no problem in rolling with the torso.


no side

Expression at the end of the match. At the end of the match, the sides of both teams disappear, reflecting the spirit of sportsmanship that brings both sides together.


no bind

The act of unbinding the ball before it leaves the scrum. If this happens, the opponent will be awarded a penalty kick.


no bind

Tackle A tackle that collides with the opponent, rather than a tackle that catches the opponent, is dangerous and is considered a foul, and the opponent will be given a penalty kick.


no whistle

Try A try is achieved without a break in play from the kick-off and without the whistle being blown.


no ball tackle

A tackle on a player who does not have the ball is considered a foul and the opponent will be given a penalty kick.


knock on

Refers to a player dropping the ball forward and restarting with a scrum of the opponent’s ball.


knock on offside

If a player in an offside position touches the knocked-on ball, the opponent will be given a penalty kick.


knock back

This is the act of a player dropping the ball backwards with his or her hand or arm, and this is not a foul.


knot straight

If, during a scrum or lineout, the player passing the ball cannot be placed in a straight line between the two teams, the scrum will be restarted with the opponent’s ball.


knot 10m (ten meter)

If the opponent does not retreat at least 10 meters from the point where the penalty kick or free kick is taken, a penalty kick will be awarded to the opponent.


knot 5m (five meters)

If the ball is not thrown within 5m of the touchline at a lineout, the opponents will be awarded a free kick.


knot release the ball

If a player who has been tackled and is knocked down does not release the ball, it is a foul and the opponent will be given a penalty kick.


knot roll away

A foul in which a penalty kick will be given to the opponent if the tackler interferes with play by not getting up quickly or letting go of the opponent.


knot 1m (one meter)

If you fail to maintain a distance of at least 1m from your opponent during a lineout, it is a violation for which your opponent will be awarded a free kick.



The act of a defensive player designating an opponent to protect and communicating this to team members when play is stagnant.



Barging is a foul that involves grabbing or pushing an opponent at a lineout, resulting in a penalty kick.


high tackle

A high tackle is the act of tackling an opponent above the shoulder line, which is seen as dangerous and is considered a foul.

A high tackle will result in a penalty kick to the opposing team.


high punt

A term used to refer to a kick that has a long flight time and sends the ball high into the air.


pile up

This refers to a situation in a ruck or maul where multiple players fall down on top of each other and the ball does not come out. In the case of a ruck, the team with the advantage restarts with a scrum; in the case of a maul, the team without the ball restarts with a scrum.



The act of wrapping one’s arms around another player’s body in a scrum, ruck, or maul.



The second call made by the referee during a scrum. This call initiates a grab with the opposing player, and a “set” call begins a scrum.


back door

The forwards stand shallowly on the opponent’s defense line and form an attack line (shape) behind them, creating a double line.

The attack line behind that is called the “backdoor.”



In the rugby world, there is an unwritten rule that during after-match functions, etc., players are not allowed to hold mugs or glasses of beer with their right hand.

If the person is holding a glass in their right hand, the person calls out “Buffalo” and the person must drink the contents of the mug or glass. ).


“Bunker” system

This is a rule introduced for the 2023 Rugby World Cup, and is a system designed to save time.

If the referee is unsure about what to do with a player who has committed a foul, a “bunker” (foul play review official) will support him and help him decide whether a yellow card is appropriate or send him off for 10 minutes if he is unsure. You can decide. The results will be announced at the stadium within 8 minutes.



It is a foul for using your hands on the ball on the ground in a scrum or ruck, and your opponent will be awarded a penalty kick.



An act in which a player with the ball tries to block an opponent from being tackled by pushing them away with his hands.



In rugby, it refers to the handling of the ball, and refers to skills using the hands such as catching and passing.

Beginners to rugby should train their handling skills!


pick up

Lifting the ball from the ground during a scrum or ruck with your hands is considered a foul and the opponent will be awarded a penalty kick.


Pillar (post)

After a ruck or maul is formed, two people are placed around it (the first and second people are sometimes called pillars, and the second person is sometimes called posts) to prevent the defense from scoring tries. This is a tactic to deploy players, protect the zone, and solidify the near field.


fijian magic

Sevens has become a national sport in Fiji, and even in 15-a-side rugby, the players who connect with each other with their imaginative steps and off-road passes are praised as “Fijian magic.”

The Fiji national team’s 15-a-side team is nicknamed the “Flying Fijians”.


50:22 (Fifty Twenty)

If the attacking team kicks the ball from their own half and sends it into touch with one or more bounces inside the opponents’ 22m line, the subsequent lineout will be restarted with the ball from the side that kicked it.

However, this rule does not apply if the attacking point crosses the halfway line and kicks the ball after returning to their own half.


fair catch

The act of catching a ball kicked by an opponent inside one’s own 22m line, calling it a “mark.”

This awards a free kick and the player who catches it restarts with the ball.



Refers to the flow of an attack from when it starts with a series of clusters until the next cluster is formed. Especially when attacking in succession, the expression “stacking phases” is used.



A “fetcher” refers to a player who retrieves the ball, and is also called a player who takes the ball or a jacker.



The act of a defensive player positioning himself on the side of the line around the breakdown. If folding is delayed, you may find yourself in a pinch.


Hooker (HO)

“Hooker” is a position located in the middle of the first row of forwards (front row), and his jersey number is “2”.



The act of kicking the ball thrown in in a scrum backwards with your foot.


foot up

A free kick is awarded to the opposing team for a foul in which the first line of forwards raises their foot before the ball is thrown into the scrum.


fly half

Another name for standoff, which refers to a halfback who is good at kicking the ball.


Flying wedge foul

Before contact with the opponent is assumed, it is permitted for one teammate to bind the ball carrier and carry the ball, but two or more players may contact the ball carrier while bound (= A flying wedge) is considered a foul and will result in a penalty. However, it is not a violation for two or more players to bind after contacting the other person.


blind side

This refers to the side that is narrower to the touchline when viewed from a scrum or crowding, and is also called the short side. The wide side, on the other hand, is called the open side.


blood bin

A temporary ejection, in which a bleeding player goes to the bench to stop the bleeding. During this time, substitutes will be replaced and players will be able to play again once the bleeding has stopped.


Flanker (FL)

This is the third row of forward positions, also called third row or back row. The left flanker is given the number 6 and the right flanker is given the number 7. However, a blindside flanker may be marked with a “6” and an openside flanker may be marked with a “7”.


free kick

This is a kick awarded for a rather serious offense, and does not allow you to aim at the goal. If the ball is kicked into touch, the game will be restarted with the opponent’s lineout.


blitz defense

A defensive system in which the defensive line moves extremely forward, robbing the opponent of time and space to think. It is similar to shallow defense and rush defense, and has been adopted by many teams in recent years.


british & irish lions

A joint team consisting of the home unions of England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland. The first expedition began in 1891, and by 1910 all four associations were participating. The team is basically formed once every four years, in the middle year of the World Cup, and travels to New Zealand, Australia, and South Africa in the southern hemisphere.


Full house

A single player scoring a try, conversion goal, penalty goal, and drop goal in one match. At the Rugby World Cup in 2003, Japan representative SO (standoff) Andrew Miller achieved this goal against Fiji, and in League One, on March 5, 2023, Saitama Wild Knights’ Takuya Yamazawa achieved this goal.


Fullback (FB)

He is at the back of the pack at the back position. His uniform number is “15”.



It is a general term for contact points such as mauls and rucks, and refers to situations in which passing or running attacks have stopped and become motionless.


brake foot

In order to form a stable and safe scrum, the hooker (HO) is required to put one foot forward and support the weight of the scrum (= brake foot) when forming a scrum. If the hooker does not use the brake foot to stabilize the scrum, the opponent will be awarded a free kick.


place kick

Refers to a goal (conversion) kick after a try or kicking the ball on the ground in a penalty goal, etc. In the past, sand was used to secure the ball, but now most players use a tee.


Prop (PR)

This is the first row of forward positions, also known as the front row. Uniform number “1” is the left prop, “3” is the right prop. The left prop is called a “loose head prop” because it is only used on one shoulder in a scrum, and the right prop is called a “tight head prop” because the weight of the opponent is placed on both shoulders.


front door

The FW attack line (shape) that stands shallowly on the double line when viewed from the point of contact is called the “front door.”


head cap

Also called “headgear,” it is a hat-like item that protects the head and ears. High school students and younger are required to wear them, and each high school uses a uniform design. Although it is optional for university students and above, many players prefer to wear the head cap of their alma mater. Professional athletes use unique designs, some of which have become trademarks.


penalty kick

A kick awarded when a serious offense is committed, allowing for a penalty goal, followed by a lineout for that team if the ball is kicked outside the touchline.


penalty goal

Three points are awarded if the penalty kick is successful.


penalty try

If it would have been a normal try if there had been no foul by the defender, it will be recognized as a try and the referee will award it at the center of the post. In this case, no goal kick will be taken and 7 points will be added directly.



Refers to a player who plays a breakthrough role, regardless of whether he is a FW or BK. Size and strength are required, and it is common to leave the ball to the penetrator from set plays such as scrums and lineouts.



Refers to the rotation of the scrum by more than 90 degrees. If the Scrum makes such a rotation, the Scrum will have to start over.



This is a foul for not letting go of the opponent after being tackled, thereby interfering with the next play. If this act occurs, the opponent will be awarded a penalty kick.



This is the sound that signals the end of the first half or the end of a game. The horn is usually sounded when each half reaches 40 minutes, and the game ends when there is no play after this horn, except for stoppage time.

However, even if a penalty is called, the match does not end.


box kick

Refers to a kick that is kicked high into the back of a crowd of players, such as in a scrum. This is a technique often used, especially by scrum-halves.



It refers to a unit that combines FW and BK, and “pod” refers to a group of whales, etc.

This attack tactic involves two, three, or four units placed across the field, based on the basic concept that “the ball is faster than people.”

For example, in the center of the field, the front five forward players form two units, and on both sides, large players such as the forwards and No. 8 players are placed.


This tactic is used by many teams around the world, and the game controllers are handled by two people: the SO, FB, or CTB.



This refers to the act of directly catching a ball kicked in by the opposing team, without bounding, inside one’s own 22m line, calling it a “mark.” The team that catches the ball is awarded a free kick.


match official

“Match officials” refers to the “umpire team,” which includes one referee, two assistant referees, and the TMO. In addition, a person with referee qualifications will be in charge of instructing substitutions (sub-controllers).



A mismatch is when there is a difference in body size or speed between the player with the ball and the player marking it.

Attackers may intentionally target mismatches using tactics and sign plays.



A play in which three or more players from both teams, including the player with the ball, grapple while standing.


Mall Unplayable

Refers to a situation in which the ball does not come out in a maul and is restarted with a scrum of the opponent’s ball.


Use it

This is a phrase used by referees to instruct the ball to be quickly released from a crowd.

If you do not release the ball even if instructed to use it, it will be a foul and a scrum will be held for the opponent’s ball.



In English, it refers to 15-a-side rugby.

13-a-side rugby is called “Rugby league,” while 15-a-side rugby is called “Union” or “Rugby union.”


line out

A play that occurs when the game is restarted after the ball goes outside the touchline.

The ball is thrown between players from both teams lined up perpendicular to the touchline.

The team that was not the team that kicked the ball out gets to put it in, but if the ball is kicked out as a penalty kick, the team that kicked it out gets to put it in.


Eliminating line-outs

Players who do not participate in the maul must stay 10 meters from the mark of touch (center line of the lineout) (if they play from within it, they will be offside).

10m offside will be resolved (lineout eliminated) in the following cases: If the ball or the player with the ball leaves the lineout.

If you enter the touchline and 5m line areas.

If you cross the 15m line.

When a maul or ruck is formed from a lineout, all players’ feet cross the mark of touch.


rugby school

The origin of rugby is said to be in 1823, when a young boy named Ellis ran with the ball at Rugby School, a public school in the town of Rugby in central England.

Therefore, the name of this high school was applied to the competition. It is believed that because Rugby School’s emblem is a red rose, the England national team’s emblem is also a red rose.



A situation in which two or more people from both teams fight for the ball while standing on the ground.

It is also considered a ruck if the attacking team simply steps over the ball on the ground.


rack unplayable

A situation where the ball does not come out in the ruck. The restart is a scrum with the ball of the team judged by the referee to have the upper hand.


Latch (latching)

A situation in which a teammate binds a player who is carrying the ball by placing his hand on his jersey.

It is OK for one player to bind and carry a teammate, but if two or more players are bound and make contact, it will be a flying wedge penalty.



It has become a standard training practice in which players line up side by side and run while passing each other.

Some players are traumatized by doing dozens of matches in the heat of summer. At the end of summer training camp for high school rugby teams, everyone plays a run pass.


league rugby

In 1895, when rugby and soccer were separated, rugby was divided into amateur 15-a-side rugby “union” and professional 13-a-side rugby “league.”

In 13-a-side rugby, the scrum was just a formality, and there was a rule that if a player knocked down an opponent four times with tackles, the right to attack was transferred to the opponent.


Therefore, players from the league are good at tackling, and the league’s defensive system is sometimes introduced to the union.



Attack the ball and continue.

In modern attack tactics, it is important to break down the opponent not on a gain basis but on a recycling basis.



“Fixed procedures and behavior”


late tackle

A foul for tackling an opponent too late after he has released the ball. The opponent will be awarded a penalty kick.


red card

This card is shown for a very serious and dangerous offense or for receiving a second yellow card.

The player will be ejected from the match.


loss time

The time during which play is stopped due to treatment of injured players, etc. In top-level matches, the clock stops and play ends where play is interrupted after 40 minutes in each half.


Lock (LO)

This is the second row of forward positions and is also called second row. Uniform number “4” is left lock, “5” is right lock.


Wa line

world rugby
An organization established in 1886 that governs rugby around the world. It decides on things like hosting international tournaments, calculating world rankings, and changing rules.

Due to the return of rugby as an Olympic sport and the increase in rugby sevens, the name was changed from “IRB” (International Rugby Board) to “World Rugby” in 2014 to make rugby more vibrant. We aim to make it something.

It is headquartered in Dublin, Ireland and has over 100 member countries.



Nickname of the Australian rugby team. They are a powerful country that has won the World Cup twice in 1991 and 1995.

The nickname Wallabies was given to them during their 1908 expedition to Great Britain and North America.

At first, the British media tried to call them “Rabbits,” but Australia did not approve of this, and the name comes from the country’s symbol, the “wallaby” (a small kangaroo).

Until the 1980s, it was only used on overseas expeditions, but it gradually became a trademark. Note that “Kangaroos” was not used as it was the nickname for 13-a-side rugby.


one for all all for one

It means “one for all, all for one.” The name originally comes from “The Three Musketeers” (Les Trois Mousquetaires) by Alexandre Dumas.

Although it is not very familiar in rugby circles overseas, it is widely accepted in Japan as a word that symbolizes the spirit of rugby.



At the end



That’s all for the explanation of rugby terminology.


To find out more about the appeal of rugby, please try playing it for yourself.


Rugby is a sport that requires more mental strength than physical strength.

As you continue to play rugby for one or two years, your rugby skills will improve.

Your mental strength will also be improved.


Let’s enjoy rugby!


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